Faster Than Light?

By Alfredo Magenta and Corrado Malanga

Rome, 8 June 1998

We have received and publish with pleasure this study by Professor Alfredo Magenta, President of the United Nations Telecommunications Commission, and the research chemist Corrado Malanga (University of Pisa), both prominent members of the Scientific Committee of the Italian National Ufological Centre.

1. Scientific Difficulties

The history of Humanity is characterized by manÕs continuous efforts to establish an exhaustive, incontrovertible and definitive explanation of facts that he notices and discovers. Up to now, the results of these efforts have taken the form of a series of theories which, as new data are gathered, need to be revised or updated. From the documents in our possession, we have moved from the theories of Aristotle, Plato and Ptolemy to those of Galileo, Copernicus and Newton, and then onto the most recent theories of Einstein. From 1945 when Humanity became aware of a phenomenon which had already occurred in the past, to today, the reality of UFOs seems to have disappeared every time they were approached using classical scientific theories.

What can be deduced from this?

Either that UFO phenomena do not exist, or that the available theories need to be revised in order to be able to explain these inexplicable phenomena too.

Besides, this situation is not a new one for science. In 1677, Robert Plot, the prelate of Oxford and author of ÒThe Natural History of the County of Oxford", carefully described a fossilized femur and classified it as an elephant femur which had probably been brought to England during the Roman occupation. There followed an increasing number of fossil finds and an accumulation of evidence pointing to the existence of past life forms which were completely different from known life forms. When Georges Cuvier (1769 - 1832) presented his principles of comparative anatomy for interpreting fossils, he gave the science of that time the necessary tools for correct interpretations of fossils. Finally, Gideon Algernon Mantel (1790 - 1852) identified the first herbivorous dinosaur as a reptile, and in England in 1820, dinosaur fossils were attributed for the first time to extinct reptiles. It had taken one and a half centuries to solve the mystery of the dinosaurs.

2. Current Knowledge

After fifty years of sightings and the ever increasing quantity of testimonies and evidence, while maintaining the utmost respect for the existing theories which have proved to be extremely effective at explaining a whole series of facts, maybe we can advance a hypothesis which, with some slight alterations, is able to offer a logical explanation of UFO phenomena, so drawing together in a rational way the volume of data that we know about. The theory is based on current theoretical knowledge about the dual nature of matter which, depending on the scientific experiment, appears as a corpuscle or a wave. One of the problems of modern physics is to try to explain how and why a photon decides to change its nature by becoming a corpuscle, depending on the type of experiment being carried out. Although light is made up of waves, PlanckÕs quantum principle tells us that, in certain conditions light behaves as if it were made up of particles. Moreover, HeisenbergÕs uncertainty principle implies that in some ways, particles behave like waves. They do not have a fixed position but Òspread outÓ in a certain probabilistic distribution.

The new theory of quantum mechanics showed that an electron in orbit around a nucleus could be thought of as a wave, with a wavelength dependent on its velocity. For some orbits, the wavelength of the orbit corresponded to a whole number of the wavelength of the electron, so the waves added up. These orbits corresponded to the orbits allowed by Bohr. In the case of non-multiple whole orbits of the wavelength, the successive rotations cancelled out the orbits. These were the orbits that were not allowed. The problem of the electronÕs duality seemed to have been solved.

A good way to visualize the wave-particle duality was devised by Richard Feynman. Instead of supposing that the particle has a single history or a single trajectory in space-time, as in the classical non quantum theory, we can suppose that it moves from A to B taking every possible trajectory. A pair of numbers is associated with each trajectory: one represents the size of a wave and the other represents its position in the cycle (or rather, if it is at a crest or a trough).

The probability of moving from A to B is found by adding together the waves and all the trajectories. In general, if a group of neighbouring trajectories are compared, the phases will differ greatly, and so the associated waves cancel each other out almost exactly. For some groups of trajectories, the phases will not vary much, so the waves will not cancel each other out. Such trajectories correspond to the orbits allowed by Bohr.

The behaviour described here is shown as a reduction of the wave packet of a photon to a particle. We also know, using classical tensor theories, that the general equation where the sum of forces is equal to zero, expresses the concept that space has a second degree curvature. It could therefore be a cylinder, a cone, a sphere or a saddle-shaped surface. This is the state of the Universe in a region which does not contain matter or electrons (bonded energy) but contains light or electromagnetic fields (free energy).

Finally, we know from quantum and relativistic physics equations that an equality between frequency (oscillation) and mass exists for Energy.

3. The S.S.H. Theory

Using the above-mentioned knowledge as a starting point, the new theoretical approach of S.S.H. (Super Spin Hypothesis) is based on the principle of rotation and the principle of energetic equivalence.

The principle of rotation states that: the rotation of the universal energy field produces the electric (e), the magnetic (m) and gravitational (g) fields.

The Rosen-Einstein theory shows space-time to be a bidimensional plane where objects are defined as sites of points. Nothing definable exists beyond this space-time.

In this model, gravity is represented graphically as a deviation from the plane of space-time coordinates.

We therefore decided to use a graphic model which increased the dimensions to five, so taking into account time (t) and energy (e) as well as the three spatial dimensions (x, y, z). We were thus able to consider the three fields of the theory of rotation in a single equation. It is therefore possible to express the local equation for the space-time plane, including energy, in polar coordinates. With geometry as a starting point, we obtain a general equation of the type:

A² cotg²b = B²cotg²a + C²tg²a (1)

where ÒaÓ is linked to the velocity of the object (photon or electron) and b also depends on the ÒmatterÓ that the Universe is made of. This equation seems to be a generalization of the classical equations of physics, and in certain conditions, we can obtain these classical theories from it. Therefore, the hypothesis that we have put forward is only a corrective of recognized physics and so does not go against acquired knowledge, but if anything, it confirms it as a special case.

The idea of field spin, i.e. of rotation, is based on the assumption that in some way, the electromagnetic field can locally influence gravity. This means that at certain times, mass can change into charge and vice versa. Indeed in the formula (1), A is a term of mass, B is a term of time and C is a term of space and they relate to each other. Therefore, since nothing is wasted in terms of energy, if energy disappears, either space or time must appear. In other words, a and b modify each other only if the first term is not zero. However, in our geometric space, gravity is a consequence of the rotation of a ÒfieldÓ along the E axis (energy), like a ball which spins vortically in water and produces a whirlpool (Òframe draggingÓ). While formula (1) shows what the coordinates of a point P in a curved space-time are, we can imagine a point P with characteristics that warp space-time (in which case the coordinates would thus become vectors and versors).

By analogy, a rotation about the t axis (time) could produce a magnetic field, and similarly an electric field could be produced around the s axis (space). We only have a rotation of field if the terms A, B and C are not zero.

The energy spin Sm² = (mc² - hv) ²

produces gravity

The magnetic spin St² = (t - s/c² v) ²

produces a magnetic field

The electric spin Ss² = (s - vt) ²

produces an electric field.

It is interesting to note how the variations in an electric field with time produce a variation in the magnetic field but not in the gravitational field. This could explain the existence of separate electric charges, but not magnetic charges. The fact that rotation is possible in only two directions could also explain the existence of only two electric charges (+ and -), and of only two magnetic fields (N and S).

The mass ÒmÓ can exist only if there is rotation around the energy axis. Mass is therefore rotation. If we spin the S and T fields in opposite phases (180° phase), we obtain an electromagnetic field without any apparent mass, since the two rotating components S and T on the energy axis constantly cancel each other out. In this case, a photon is obtained.

To obtain antigravity, we must maintain S and T in phase, but make them move in a disrotatory direction and the component on the E axis becomes positive.

This is a hypothesis that completely overturns the current position of physics. The implications are obvious. To transport a body at the speed of light, all the particle components of the body change into pseudo photons (into particles which keep all their characteristics but lose their mass, i.e. rotation around the energy axis). We will thus have photon protons, photon neutrons and photon electrons which will be transported at the speed of light and then, when the direction of the rotation is reversed, they will be reconverted to matter. This change must happen in a coherent and collimating way (as in laser beams), or else there would be a spherical diffusion of photons, with a loss of aggregation of matter. LetÕs now consider a photon. In classical physics it is represented as a packet of electromagnetic waves propagating into the void at the speed of light. The electric and magnetic fields which make up the photon propagate, oscillating in sinusoidal waves in time (according to MaxwellÕs theory), but they are out of phase with each other in the space of 90°. At every 180 degrees of time they cancel each other out in order to reverse their phase in the successive 180 degrees. During the moments when they cancel each other out, we must suppose that energy cancels itself out. Taking into consideration the principle of the conservation of energy and of the physical theory of the duality of waves and particles provided for by quantum mechanics, we have put forward a second hypothesis:

ÒEnergetic equivalence: electromagnetic energy (e.m.) of a wave nature changes into gravitational energy (g) of a corpuscular type according to a law of the oscillation of energy linked to rotation."

In other words, we must associate, moment by moment, three vectors E, H and G, which are associated with spin and opportune phases.

We therefore propose adding a fifth equation to MaxwellÕs four equations, which takes into account the presence of gravitational fields which are out of phase in space and time with regard to electromagnetic fields.

This hypothesis completely overturns the current position of physics which has always considered corpuscular phenomena to be continuous and wave phenomena to be quantized. But this hypothesis unifies them in a large oscillation where the quantization is due to the change of state of the wave which changes from e.m. energy into matter and vice versa.

òò Ex H dx dt = mc2 sen (wt + j)

If this equation is correct, we can use it to calculate the mass of a photon which turns out to be around 10 -60 grammes. An experimental verification of this value would be an indirect confirmation of the theory.

A final hypothesis, linked to rotation and the fractal theory, which says that if rules are valid on a small scale, then they are also valid on a large scale, and whatever is valid for the interior is valid for the exterior too, is that the Universe is not made up of two simple planes, one matter and the other antimatter, but of seven levels of matter and seven levels of antimatter. The reason why there are seven levels is due to the seven energy levels of electrons, in accordance with SchrödingerÕs theory. If we analyse the half of the Universe with the seven space-time planes, at the moment Òt0Ó, the Universe is made up of different points rotating rapidly around the E axis. In this case, it is all matter and no radiation, and there is neither space nor time.

At the time Òt0Ó, there is no longer matter, but only space and time (there is only radiation). In this context, if there is more than one universe, or rather space-time planes, they will be characterized by different levels of the E value. Consequently, at the time t1 on level 2, there is a limit of velocity with an absolute value that is different with respect to level 1.

Supposing that the Universe is expanding, as accepted by current theories, the angle and distances of the Universe must be increasing. But as all the energy levels expand at a constant velocity, the speed of light in the various levels must, of course, be different. To move from one universe level to another, it is thus necessary to vibrate at a different frequency. In a more explicit form, this idea means that if the velocity at which the phenomenon takes place and the verification of an event coincide, the experiment is feasible. In the case where there is a phase shift between the phenomenon and the verification, any experiment, even if it takes place in the same space, occurs at a different time and is therefore not discernible to the observer. In this case, time also proves to be quantized.

4. Verification and Conclusions

The first verification of the hypothesis is linked to the reduction of the spherical wave packet to a corpuscular particle. In the case of an oscillation of e.m. energy to ÔgÕ energy, we could consider that, at the moment when the photon which is propagating spherically, interacts with the observer, it would appear as a form of gravitational energy and would therefore be corpuscular. The observer would have to be in a position which would coincide with a whole or half number of wavelength of one of the frequencies contained in the photon. In other cases, this interaction could not occur and therefore the possibility of showing the photon as corpuscular is low, and so the photon would continue its wave motion. The resonance chamber experiment would be more easily explained too. If the wavelength of the chamber is equal to that of the photon, then the photon will stay in the chamber. If it is different, it could easily be outside the chamber.

Many particles discovered in recent times, which throw the quark theory into crisis, can be explained with a condensation in gravitational fields (9) and in e.m. fields with suitable rotation energy.

5. The Birth of the Universe

The conclusion of this theory is that the Universe was born out of an initial rotation of universal energy in which the three bodies, E, H and G coexist.

At the moment when these fields started to move away from the origin of the rotation by spreading out, they created space-time and consequently the Universe as we know it. A continuous energy exchange takes place between these three fields in this Universe.

At the points where the G field prevails, the universal energy appears in the form of matter, and in other cases it appears as e.m. energy.

We can therefore conclude that:

ÒThe whole Universe is oscillation and its end or beginning are contained in the rotation.Ó

So, based on the hypothesis of the origin of the Universe being linked to the spin of universal energy, we can explain both the physical phenomena and the behaviour of UFOs. Their sudden appearance, their speed and their rotation are therefore physical phenomena closely connected to rotation and the energy exchange between the e.m. and G fields.

If we managed to control energy exchange and rotation, we could cross any space and any time, appearing in different times and places but with prearranged and slightly modifiable material characteristics. A UFO could therefore interfere in any space and in any time, making the unchangeable structure of energy real.

The new concept of space-time would immediately make us, as a consequence, Aliens. Wouldn't it?